Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Centene Corporation and all majority owned subsidiaries and subsidiaries over which the Company exercises the power and control to direct activities significantly impacting financial performance. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

Certain amounts in the consolidated financial statements and notes have been reclassified to conform to the 2019 presentation. These reclassifications have no effect on net earnings or stockholders' equity as previously reported.

Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Future events and their effects cannot be predicted with certainty; accordingly, the accounting estimates require the exercise of judgment. The accounting estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the operating environment changes. The Company evaluates and updates its assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and may employ outside experts to assist in its evaluation, as considered necessary. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Business Combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. The Company allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values at the acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is generally attributable to the value of the synergies between the combined companies and the value of the acquired assembled workforce, neither of which qualifies for recognition as an intangible asset.

The Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date; however, these estimates are sometimes preliminary and, in some instances, all information required to value the assets acquired and liabilities assumed may not be available or final as of the end of a reporting period subsequent to the business combination. If the accounting for the business combination is incomplete, provisional amounts are recorded. The provisional amounts are updated during the period determined, up to one year from the acquisition date. The Company includes the results of operations of acquired businesses in the Company's consolidated results prospectively from the date of acquisition.

Acquisition related expenses and post-acquisition restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Investments with original maturities of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of money market funds, bank certificates of deposit and savings accounts.

The Company maintains amounts on deposit with various financial institutions, which may exceed federally insured limits. However, management periodically evaluates the credit-worthiness of those institutions, and the Company has not experienced any losses on such deposits.

Short-term investments include securities with maturities greater than three months to one year. Long-term investments include securities with maturities greater than one year.

Short-term and long-term investments are generally classified as available for sale and are carried at fair value. Certain equity investments are recorded using the fair value or equity method. Unrealized gains and losses on debt investments available for sale are excluded from earnings and reported in accumulated other comprehensive earnings (loss), a separate component of stockholders' equity, net of income tax effects. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted over the life of the related security using the effective interest method. The Company monitors the difference between the cost and fair value of investments. Investments that experience a decline in value that is judged to be other than temporary are written down to fair value and a realized loss is recorded in investment and other income. To calculate realized gains and losses on the sale of investments, the Company uses the specific amortized cost of each investment sold. Realized gains and losses are recorded in investment and other income.
The Company uses the equity method to account for investments in entities that it does not control but has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies. These investments are recorded at the lower of their cost or fair value adjusted for the Company's proportionate share of earnings or losses.

Restricted Deposits
Restricted deposits consist of investments required by various state statutes to be deposited or pledged to state agencies. These investments are classified as long-term, regardless of the contractual maturity date, due to the nature of the states' requirements. The Company is required to annually adjust the amount of the deposit pledged to certain states. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, restricted deposits included $8 million of cash and cash equivalents.

Fair Value Measurements

In the normal course of business, the Company invests in various financial assets and incurs various financial liabilities. Fair values are disclosed for all financial instruments, whether or not such values are recognized in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Management obtains quoted market prices and other observable inputs for these disclosures. The carrying amounts reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents, premium and trade receivables, medical claims liability, accounts payable and accrued expenses, unearned revenue, and certain other current assets and liabilities are carried at cost, which approximates fair value because of their short-term nature.

The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each financial instrument:
Available for sale investments and restricted deposits: The carrying amount is stated at fair value, based on quoted market prices, where available. For securities not actively traded, fair values were estimated using values obtained from independent pricing services or quoted market prices of comparable instruments.
Senior unsecured notes: Estimated based on third-party quoted market prices for the same or similar issues.
Variable rate debt: The carrying amount of the Company's floating rate debt approximates fair value since the interest rates adjust based on market rate adjustments.
Interest rate swap: Estimated based on third-party market prices based on the forward 1-month or 3-month LIBOR curve.
Contingent consideration: Estimated based on expected achievement of metrics included in the acquisition agreement considering circumstances that exist as of the acquisition date.
Property, Software and Equipment
Property, software and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Computer hardware and software includes certain costs incurred in the development of internal-use software, including external direct costs of materials and services and payroll costs of employees devoted to specific software development. Depreciation is calculated principally by the straight-line method over estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are depreciated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the expected useful life or the remaining term of the lease. Property, software and equipment are depreciated over the following periods:
Fixed Asset
Depreciation Period
Buildings and improvements
 5 - 40 years
Computer hardware and software
2 - 7 years
Furniture and equipment
 3 - 10 years
Land improvements
 3 - 20 years
Leasehold improvements
 1 - 20 years

The carrying amounts of all long-lived assets are evaluated to determine if adjustment to the depreciation and amortization period or to the unamortized balance is warranted. Such evaluation is based principally on the expected utilization of the long-lived assets.

The Company retains fully depreciated assets in property and accumulated depreciation accounts until it removes them from service. In the case of sale, retirement, or disposal, the asset cost and related accumulated depreciation balance is removed from the respective account, and the resulting net amount, less any proceeds, is included as a component of earnings from operations in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Intangible assets represent assets acquired in purchase transactions and consist primarily of purchased contract rights, provider contracts, customer relationships, trade names, developed technologies and goodwill. Intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over the following periods:
Intangible Asset
Amortization Period
Purchased contract rights
5 - 21 years
Provider contracts
4 - 15 years
Customer relationships
3 - 15 years
Trade names
7 - 20 years
Developed technologies
2 - 7 years
Other intangibles
2 - 5 years

The Company tests for impairment of intangible assets as well as long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group (hereinafter referred to as "asset group") may not be recoverable by comparing the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from use of the asset group and its eventual disposition to the carrying value. Such factors include, but are not limited to, significant changes in membership, state funding, state contracts and provider networks and contracts. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying value, an impairment determination is required. The amount of impairment is calculated by subtracting the fair value of the asset group from the carrying value of the asset group. An impairment charge, if any, is recognized within earnings from operations.

The Company tests goodwill for impairment using a fair value approach. The Company is required to test for impairment at least annually, absent a triggering event, which could include a significant decline in operating performance that would require an impairment assessment. Absent any impairment indicators, the Company performs its goodwill impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year. The Company recognizes an impairment charge for any amount by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its fair value.

The Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. The Company generally does not calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless it determines, based on a qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. However, in certain circumstances, such as recent acquisitions, the Company may elect to perform a quantitative assessment without first assessing qualitative factors.

If the quantitative test is deemed necessary, the Company determines an appropriate valuation technique to estimate a reporting unit's fair value as of the testing date. The Company utilizes either the income approach or the market approach, whichever is most appropriate for the respective reporting unit. The income approach is based on an internally developed discounted cash flow model that includes many assumptions related to future growth rates, discount factors, future tax rates, etc. The market approach is based on financial multiples of comparable companies derived from current market data. The Company then compares the fair value of the reporting unit calculated using the income approach or market approach with its carrying amount and recognizes an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds fair value. The impairment charge is limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. Changes in economic and operating conditions impacting assumptions used in the Company's analyses could result in goodwill impairment in future periods.
Medical Claims Liability
Medical claims liability includes claims reported but not yet paid, or inventory, estimates for claims incurred but not reported, or IBNR, and estimates for the costs necessary to process unpaid claims at the end of each period. The Company estimates its medical claims liability using actuarial methods that are commonly used by health insurance actuaries and meet Actuarial Standards of Practice. These actuarial methods consider factors such as historical data for payment patterns, cost trends, product mix, seasonality, utilization of healthcare services and other relevant factors.  

Actuarial Standards of Practice generally require that the medical claims liability estimates be adequate to cover obligations under moderately adverse conditions. Moderately adverse conditions are situations in which the actual claims are expected to be higher than the otherwise estimated value of such claims at the time of estimate. In many situations, the claims amounts ultimately settled will be different than the estimate that satisfies the Actuarial Standards of Practice. The Company includes in its IBNR an estimate for medical claims liability under moderately adverse conditions which represents the risk of adverse deviation of the estimates in its actuarial method of reserving.

The Company uses its judgment to determine the assumptions to be used in the calculation of the required estimates. The assumptions it considers when estimating IBNR include, without limitation, claims receipt and payment experience (and variations in that experience), changes in membership, provider billing practices, healthcare service utilization trends, cost trends, product mix, seasonality, prior authorization of medical services, benefit changes, known outbreaks of disease or increased incidence of illness such as influenza, provider contract changes, changes to fee schedules, and the incidence of high dollar or catastrophic claims.
The Company's development of the medical claims liability estimate is a continuous process which it monitors and refines on a monthly basis as additional claims receipts and payment information becomes available. As more complete claims information becomes available, the Company adjusts the amount of the estimates, and includes the changes in estimates in medical costs in the period in which the changes are identified. In every reporting period, the operating results include the effects of more completely developed medical claims liability estimates associated with previously reported periods. The Company consistently applies its reserving methodology from period to period. As additional information becomes known, it adjusts the actuarial model accordingly to establish medical claims liability estimates.

The Company periodically reviews actual and anticipated experience compared to the assumptions used to establish medical costs. The Company establishes premium deficiency reserves if actual and anticipated experience indicates that existing policy liabilities together with the present value of future gross premiums will not be sufficient to cover the present value of future benefits, settlement and maintenance costs.    

Revenue Recognition

The Company's health plans generate revenues primarily from premiums received from the states in which it operates health plans, premiums received from its members and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for its Medicare product, and premiums from members of its commercial health plans. In addition to member premium payments, its Marketplace contracts also generate revenues from subsidies received from CMS. The Company generally receives a fixed premium per member per month pursuant to its contracts and recognizes premium revenues during the period in which it is obligated to provide services to its members at the amount reasonably estimable. In some instances, the Company's base premiums are subject to an adjustment, or risk score, based on the acuity of its membership. Generally, the risk score is determined by the State or CMS analyzing submissions of processed claims data to determine the acuity of the Company's membership relative to the entire state's membership.
The Company estimates the amount of risk adjustment based upon the processed claims data submitted and expected to be submitted to CMS and records revenues on a risk adjusted basis. Some contracts allow for additional premiums related to certain supplemental services provided such as maternity deliveries.

The Company's contracts with states may require us to maintain a minimum health benefits ratio (HBR) or may require us to share profits in excess of certain levels. In certain circumstances, including commercial plans, its plans may be required to return premium to the state or policyholders in the event profits exceed established levels. The Company estimates the effect of these programs and recognizes reductions in revenue in the current period. Other states may require us to meet certain performance and quality metrics in order to receive additional or full contractual revenue. For performance-based contracts, the Company does not recognize revenue subject to refund until data is sufficient to measure performance.

Revenues are recorded based on membership and eligibility data provided by the states or CMS, which is adjusted on a monthly basis by the states or CMS for retroactive additions or deletions to membership data. These eligibility adjustments are estimated monthly and subsequent adjustments are made in the period known. The Company continuously reviews and updates those estimates as new information becomes available. It is possible that new information could require us to make additional adjustments, which could be significant, to these estimates.

The Company's Medicare Advantage contracts are with CMS. CMS deploys a risk adjustment model which apportions premiums paid to all health plans according to health severity and certain demographic factors. The CMS risk adjustment model pays more for members whose medical history would indicate that they are expected to have higher medical costs. Under this risk adjustment methodology, CMS calculates the risk adjusted premium payment using diagnosis data from hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, physician treatment settings as well as prescription drug events. The Company and the healthcare providers collect, compile and submit the necessary and available diagnosis data to CMS within prescribed deadlines. The Company estimates risk adjustment revenues based upon the diagnosis data submitted and expected to be submitted to CMS and records revenues on a risk adjusted basis.

The Company's specialty services generate revenues under contracts with state and federal programs, healthcare organizations and other commercial organizations, as well as from its own subsidiaries. Revenues are recognized when the related services are provided or as ratably earned over the covered period of services. The Company recognizes revenue related to administrative services under the TRICARE government-sponsored managed care support contract for the DoD's TRICARE program on a straight-line basis over the option period, when the fees become fixed and determinable. The TRICARE contract includes various performance-based measures. For each of the measures, an estimate of the amount that has been earned is made at each interim date, and revenue is recognized accordingly.

Some states enact premium taxes, similar assessments and provider pass-through payments, collectively premium taxes, and these taxes are recorded as a separate component of both revenues and operating expenses. Additionally, the Company's insurance subsidiaries are subject to the Affordable Care Act annual health insurer fee (HIF), absent a HIF moratorium. The ACA imposed the HIF in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018. The HIF was suspended in 2017 and 2019. If the Company is able to negotiate reimbursement of portions of these premium taxes or the HIF, it recognizes revenue associated with the HIF on a straight-line basis when the Company has binding agreements for such reimbursements, including the "gross-up" to reflect the HIFs non-tax deductible nature. Collectively, this revenue is recorded as premium tax and health insurer fee revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. For certain products, premium taxes, state assessments and the HIF are not pass-through payments and are recorded as premium revenue and premium tax expense or health insurer fee expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Some states require state directed payments that have minimal risk, but are administered as a premium adjustment.  These payments are recorded as premium revenue and medical costs at close to a 100% HBR. The Company little visibility to the timing of these payments until they are paid by the state. 

Affordable Care Act

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) established risk spreading premium stabilization programs as well as minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) and cost sharing reductions.

The Company's accounting policies for the programs are as follows:

Risk Adjustment

The permanent risk adjustment program established by the ACA transfers funds from qualified individual and small group insurance plans with below average risk scores to those plans with above average risk scores within each state. The Company estimates the receivable or payable under the risk adjustment program based on its estimated risk score compared to the state average risk score. The Company may record a receivable or payable as an adjustment to premium revenues to reflect the year-to-date impact of the risk adjustment based on its best estimate. The Company refines its estimate as new information becomes available.

Minimum Medical Loss Ratio

Additionally, the ACA established a minimum MLR for the Health Insurance Marketplace. The risk adjustment program described above is taken into consideration to determine if the Company's estimated annual medical costs are less than the minimum MLR and require an adjustment to premium revenues to meet the minimum MLR.

Cost Sharing Reductions (CSRs)

The ACA directs issuers to reduce the Company's members' cost sharing for essential health benefits for individuals with Federal Poverty Levels (FPLs) between 100% and 250% who are enrolled in a silver tier product; eliminate cost sharing for Indians/Alaska Natives with an FPL less than 300% and eliminate cost sharing for Indians/Alaska Natives regardless of FPL level when services are provided by an Indian Health Service. In order to compensate issuers for reduced cost sharing provided to enrollees, CMS pays an advance CSR payment to the Company each month based on the Company's certification data provided at the time of the qualified health plan application. After the close of the benefit year, the Company is required to provide CMS with data on the value of the CSRs provided to enrollees based on either a 'simplified' or 'standard' approach. A reconciliation will occur in order to calculate the difference between the Company's CSR advance payments received and the value of CSRs provided to enrollees. This reconciliation will produce either a payable or receivable to/from CMS. The Company has elected the standard methodology approach. In October 2017, the Trump Administration issued an executive order that immediately ceased payments of CSRs to issuers, and 2018 premium rates for Health Insurance Marketplace were set without factoring in the cost sharing subsidy payments from the federal government.

Premium and Trade Receivables and Unearned Revenue

Premium and service revenues collected in advance are recorded as unearned revenue. For performance-based contracts, the Company does not recognize revenue subject to refund until data is sufficient to measure performance. Premiums and service revenues due to the Company are recorded as premium and trade receivables and are recorded net of an allowance based on historical trends and management's judgment on the collectibility of these accounts. As the Company generally receives payments during the month in which services are provided, the allowance is typically not significant in comparison to total revenues and does not have a material impact on the presentation of the financial condition or results of operations. Amounts receivable under federal contracts are comprised primarily of contractually defined billings, accrued contract incentives under the terms of the contract and amounts related to change orders for services not originally specified in the contract.

Activity in the allowance for uncollectible accounts for the years ended December 31, is summarized below ($ in millions):
Allowances, beginning of year



Amounts charged to expense



Write-offs of uncollectible receivables
Allowances, end of year



The increase in the amounts charged to expense in 2018 primarily relates to costs associated with the expiration of the Company's contract to provide health care coordination services to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs under the Patient-Centered Community Care and Veterans Choice Programs. 

Significant Customers
Centene receives the majority of its revenues under contracts or subcontracts with state Medicaid managed care programs. Customers where the aggregate annual contract revenues exceeded 10% of total annual revenues included the State of California, where the percentage of the Company's total revenue was 11%, 13% and 18% for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively; the State of New York, where the percentage of the Company's total revenue was 15% for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the State of Texas, where the percentage of the Company's total revenue was 10% and 12% for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists principally of investment income, interest expense and equity method earnings from investments. Investment income is derived from the Company's cash, cash equivalents, restricted deposits and investments. Interest expense relates to borrowings under the senior notes, interest rate swaps, credit facilities, mortgage and construction loans, and capital leases.

Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax law or tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

Valuation allowances are provided when it is considered more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized. In determining if a deductible temporary difference or net operating loss can be realized, the Company considers future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income, taxable income in prior carryback periods and tax planning strategies.

The Company accrues for loss contingencies associated with outstanding litigation, claims and assessments for which it has determined it is probable that a loss contingency exists and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company expenses professional fees associated with litigation claims and assessments as incurred.

Stock Based Compensation
The fair value of the Company's employee share options and similar instruments are estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. That cost is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. Excess tax benefits related to stock compensation are presented as a cash inflow from operating activities. The Company accounts for forfeitures when they occur.

Foreign Currency Translation
The Company is exposed to foreign currency exchange risk through its international subsidiaries whose functional currencies include the Euro and British Pound. The assets and liabilities of the Company's subsidiaries are translated into United States dollars at the balance sheet date. The Company translates its proportionate share of earnings using average rates during the year. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive earnings (loss).

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an Accounting Standards Update (ASU) that introduces a lessee model that requires the majority of leases to be recognized on the balance sheet. The new standard also aligns many of the underlying principles of the new lessor model with those in Accounting Standards Codification 606, the FASB's new revenue recognition standard, and addresses other concerns related to the current lessee model. The standard also requires lessors to increase the transparency of their exposure to changes in value of their residual assets and how they manage that exposure. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2019 using the modified retrospective transition approach. In addition, the Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which allows an entity to not reassess lease classification for existing leases. The impact of the new guidance is further discussed in Note 11. Leases.

In January 2017, the FASB issued an ASU simplifying the test for goodwill impairment. The amendments in this ASU eliminate Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Thus, an entity will no longer be required to compare the implied fair value of a reporting unit's goodwill to its carrying amount. Instead, under the new guidance, an entity should perform the goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. The impairment charge should be limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Under the new guidance, an entity still has the option to first perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The new standard is effective for an entity's annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted the new guidance in the third quarter of 2019. The Company has an immaterial amount of goodwill at reporting units with negative carrying value. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In March 2017, the FASB issued an ASU that changes the period over which premiums on callable debt securities are amortized. The new standard requires the premiums on callable debt securities to be amortized to the earliest call date rather than to the contractual maturity date of the instrument. The new guidance more closely aligns the amortization period of premiums to expectations incorporated in the market pricing on the underlying securities. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2019. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In August 2017, the FASB issued an ASU that amends the hedge accounting model to enable entities to better align the economics of risk management activities and financial reporting. In addition, the new standard enhances the understandability of hedge results and simplifies the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2019. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted

In December 2019, the FASB issued an ASU which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in ASC Topic 740. The ASU also clarifies and amends certain areas of ASC Topic 740 to improve consistent application of and simplify the generally accepted accounting principles within Topic 740. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of the ASU on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In August 2018, the FASB issued an ASU which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by the amendments in this update. The amendments in this ASU require an entity that is the customer in a hosting arrangement to follow the guidance on internal-use software to determine which implementation costs to capitalize and which costs to expense. The standard also requires an entity that is the customer to expense the capitalized implementation costs of a hosting arrangement over the term of the hosting arrangement. The new guidance requires an entity to present the expense related to the capitalized implementation costs in the same line item in the statement of income as the fees associated with the hosting element of the arrangement and classify payments for capitalized implementation costs in the statement of cash flows in the same manner as payments made for fees associated with the hosting element. The entity is also required to present the capitalized implementation costs in the statement of financial position in the same line item that a prepayment for the fees of the associated hosting arrangement would be presented. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2020. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In June 2016, the FASB issued an ASU, and related amendments, which changes how entities measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other investments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The ASU is intended to improve financial reporting by requiring timelier recording of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments held by financial institutions and other organizations. The amended guidance requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets (or groups of financial assets) and available for sale debt securities held at the reporting date over the remaining life based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2020. The vast majority of the Company's receivables and other financial instruments are with government entities and therefore the adoption did not have a material impact on its receivables and other financial instruments. The Company evaluated its investment portfolio under the new available-for-sale debt securities impairment model guidance for identification of securities with an impairment due to credit loss. The vast majority of the Company's investment portfolio is low risk, investment grade securities. The impact of the adoption related to the Company's investment portfolio resulted in an immaterial cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

The Company has determined that there are no other recently issued accounting pronouncements that will have a material impact on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.