Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Organization and Operations (Policies)

v3.10.0.1
Organization and Operations (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance and Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an Accounting Standards Update (ASU) which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements.  The amendments in this ASU remove the requirements to disclose the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy for timing of transfers between levels and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements.  The amendments require public entities to disclose the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements for instruments held at the end of the reporting period, and the range and weighted average used to develop significant inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements.  For investments in certain entities that calculate net asset value, the standard requires the disclosure of the period of time over which the underlying assets might be liquidated if the investee has announced the timing publicly.  The Company adopted the new guidance in the third quarter of 2018.  The new guidance did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In June 2018, the FASB issued an ASU that simplifies the accounting for share-based payment arrangements with non-employees for goods and services. Under the ASU, the guidance on such payments to non-employees is aligned with the accounting for share-based payments granted to employees, including the measurement of equity-classified awards, which is fixed at the grant date under the new guidance. The Company adopted the new guidance in the second quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective approach with an immaterial cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings.

In February 2018, the FASB issued an ASU which allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income (OCI) to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Job Acts (TCJA). Consequently, the amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the TCJA and will improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. However, because the amendments only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the TCJA, the underlying guidance that requires that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. The amendments in this ASU also require certain disclosures about stranded tax effects. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2018 and elected to reclassify stranded tax effects as a result of the TCJA related to unrealized gains and losses on investments and defined benefit plan obligations. The Company uses the individual security approach to release income tax effects from accumulated OCI. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In November 2016, the FASB issued an ASU clarifying the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this ASU require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2018. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash and cash equivalents reported on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows includes restricted cash and cash equivalents of $6 million, $6 million, $17 million and $7 million as of December 31, 2016, September 30, 2017, December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018, respectively.

In March 2016, the FASB issued an ASU which requires entities to measure equity investments at fair value and recognize any change in fair value in net income. The standard does not apply to accounting methods that result in consolidation of the investee and those accounted for under the equity method. The standard also requires entities to record changes in instrument-specific credit risk for financial liabilities measured under the fair value option in other comprehensive income. Companies are required to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to the statement of financial position as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the guidance is adopted, with the exception of amendments related to equity investments without readily determinable fair values, which will be applied prospectively to all investments that exist as of the date of adoption. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2018. The new guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In May 2014, the FASB issued an ASU which supersedes existing revenue recognition standards with a single model unless those contracts are within the scope of other standards (e.g., an insurance entity's insurance contracts). Under the new standard, recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective approach with a cumulative-effect increase to retained earnings of $16 million. The Company also elected the practical expedient of applying the new guidance only to contracts that are not completed as of the date of initial application. The majority of the Company's revenues are derived from insurance contracts and are excluded from the new standard.

Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted

In August 2018, the FASB issued an ASU which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license).  The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by the amendments in this update.  The amendments in this ASU require an entity that is the customer in a hosting arrangement to follow the guidance on internal-use software to determine which implementation costs to capitalize and which costs to expense.  The standard also requires an entity that is the customer to expense the capitalized implementation costs of a hosting arrangement over the term of the hosting arrangement.  The new guidance requires an entity to present the expense related to the capitalized implementation costs in the same line item in the statement of income as the fees associated with the hosting element of the arrangement and classify payments for capitalized implementation costs in the statement of cash flows in the same manner as payments made for fees associated with the hosting element.  The entity is also required to present the capitalized implementation costs in the statement of financial position in the same line item that a prepayment for the fees of the associated hosting arrangement would be presented.  The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019.  Early adoption is permitted. The new guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In February 2016, the FASB issued an ASU which introduces a lessee model that requires the majority of leases to be recognized on the balance sheet. The new standard also aligns many of the underlying principles of the new lessor model with those in Accounting Standards Codification 606, the FASB's new revenue recognition standard, and addresses other concerns related to the current lessee model. The standard also requires lessors to increase the transparency of their exposure to changes in value of their residual assets and how they manage that exposure. It is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The initial standard required a modified retrospective transition approach, with application, including disclosures, in all comparative periods presented. In July 2018, the FASB issued an ASU which gives all entities a transition option and provides lessors with a practical expedient. The transition option allows entities to not apply the new standard in the comparative periods they present in their financial statements in the year of adoption. Under the transition option, entities can continue to apply the legacy guidance in ASC 840, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption of the lease standard. Entities that elect this option will adopt the standard using the modified retrospective transition method but recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption rather than in the earliest period presented. The practical expedient provides lessors the option to not separate the non-lease components from the associated lease components when certain criteria are met and requires them to account for the combined component in accordance with the new revenue standard if the associated non-lease components are the predominant components. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of the new lease guidance and plans to elect the transition option of using the effective date of the new standard as the date of initial application.