Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Business Combinations
Business Combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. The Company allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values at the acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is generally attributable to the value of the synergies between the combined companies and the value of the acquired assembled workforce, neither of which qualifies for recognition as an intangible asset.

The Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date; however, these estimates are sometimes preliminary and in some instances, all information required to value the assets acquired and liabilities assumed may not be available or final as of the end of a reporting period subsequent to the business combination. If the accounting for the business combination is incomplete, provisional amounts are recorded. The provisional amounts are updated during the period determined, up to one year from the acquisition date. The Company includes the results of operations of acquired businesses in the Company's consolidated results prospectively from the date of acquisition.

Acquisition related expenses and post-acquisition restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition

The Company's health plans generate revenues primarily from premiums received from the states in which it operates health plans. The Company receives a fixed premium per member per month pursuant to its state contracts. The Company generally receives premium payments during the month it provides services and recognizes premium revenue during the period in which it is obligated to provide services to its members. In some instances, the Company's base premiums are subject to an adjustment, or risk score, based on the acuity of its membership. Generally, the risk score is determined by the State analyzing submissions of processed claims data to determine the acuity of the Company's membership relative to the entire state's Medicaid membership. Some states enact premium taxes, similar assessments and provider pass-through payments, collectively premium taxes, and these taxes are recorded as a separate component of both revenues and operating expenses. Some contracts allow for additional premiums related to certain supplemental services provided such as maternity deliveries.

Revenues are recorded based on membership and eligibility data provided by the states, which is adjusted on a monthly basis by the states for retroactive additions or deletions to membership data. These eligibility adjustments are estimated monthly and subsequent adjustments are made in the period known. The Company continuously reviews and updates those estimates as new information becomes available. It is possible that new information could require us to make additional adjustments, which could be significant, to these estimates.

The Company's Medicare Advantage contracts are with the CMS. CMS deploys a risk adjustment model which apportions premiums paid to all health plans according to health severity and certain demographic factors. The CMS risk adjustment model pays more for members whose medical history would indicate that they are expected to have higher medical costs. Under this risk adjustment methodology, CMS calculates the risk adjusted premium payment using diagnosis data from hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient and physician treatment settings. The Company and the health care providers collect, compile and submit the necessary and available diagnosis data to CMS within prescribed deadlines. The Company estimates risk adjustment revenues based upon the diagnosis data submitted and expected to be submitted to CMS.
 
The Company's specialty services generate revenues under contracts with state and federal programs, healthcare organizations, and other commercial organizations, as well as from our own subsidiaries. Revenues are recognized when the related services are provided or as ratably earned over the covered period of services. The Company recognizes revenue related to administrative services under the T-3 TRICARE government-sponsored managed care support contract in the North Region for the DoD's TRICARE program (T-3 contract) on a straight-line basis over the option period, when the fees become fixed and determinable. The T-3 contract includes various performance-based incentives and penalties. For each of the incentives or penalties, the Company adjusts revenue accordingly based on the amount that it has earned or incurred at each interim date and are legally entitled to in the event of a contract termination.
Premium and Related Receivables and Unearned Revenue
Premium and Related Receivables and Unearned Revenue

Premium and service revenues collected in advance are recorded as unearned revenue. For performance-based contracts the Company does not recognize revenue subject to refund until data is sufficient to measure performance. Premiums and service revenues due to the Company are recorded as premium and related receivables and are recorded net of an allowance based on historical trends and management's judgment on the collectibility of these accounts. As the Company generally receives payments during the month in which services are provided, the allowance is typically not significant in comparison to total revenues and does not have a material impact on the presentation of the financial condition or results of operations.

Amounts receivable under government contracts are comprised primarily of contractually defined billings, accrued contract incentives under the terms of the contract and amounts related to change orders for services not originally specified in the contract. Pursuant to the Company's T-3 contract, the government has the right to unilaterally modify the contract in certain respects by issuing change orders directing it to implement terms or services that were not originally included in the contract. Following receipt of a change order, the Company has a contractual right to negotiate an equitable adjustment to the contract terms to account for the impact of the change order. The Company starts to perform under such change orders and begins to incur associated costs after it receives the government's unilateral modification, but before it has negotiated the final scope and/or value of the change order. In these situations, costs are expensed as incurred, and the Company estimates and records revenue when it has met all applicable revenue recognition criteria. These criteria include the requirements that change order amounts are determinable, that the Company has performed under the change orders, and that collectability of amounts payable to the Company is reasonably assured.